Do We Know
Where We Are?

Young Women's Knowledge & Beliefs
About the Gender Pay Gap

  Presented by*:
          Stephanie M. Hoban
  Faculty Advisor:
          Dr. Hilary M. Lips
Center for Gender Studies
Radford University
  *At RU's Spring 2004: Student Engagement Forum
Lower Pay Expectation?
There is consistent
research that women
expect less pay than men
This may be a
strong determinant
in women's pay,
therefore, a strong
factor in the continuing
gender pay gap
The research presented
here asks:

If women’s lower
expectations are
contributing to the
gender pay gap,
Why are there gender
differences in pay

Why do women have these lower expectations?  
Where do they get their information from?  
  On what are women basing their salary estimates?
  Are there other factors that are more important
   than salary?

The Sample Used in Researching These Questions
248 Undergraduates at Radford University
Both Psychology and Management Classes

Males(119), Females(129) Mean age: 20.5 years
Mean GPA: 2.88
Percentage single: 91%
Caucasians: 90%

Business majors(49%)
Other majors(51%)
Seniors(36%) Juniors(19%) Sophomores(12%)

Males pay estimates were higher than females in:

Peak salary for self
Peak salary for others
Fair peak salary

There were no significant gender differences in pay estimates for
Entry pay for self
Entry pay for others
Fair starting salary
Predictors of Women's Pay Expections     Predictors of Men's Pay Expectations
Entry salary
Peak salary
Entry salary
Peak salary
Presentation and
writing skills
Job security (negative)
Fair entry salary
Fair peak salary
Entry salary of others
Residential location
Frequent feedback
Job security (negative)
Fair starting salary
Fair peak salary
Peak salary of others
Entry salary of self
Number of weeks per year expected to work
Self-perceived presentation
and writing skills
Others' entry pay
preparedness for
Others peak pay
Number of years working
at this job
Two "Interesting" Non-predictors of Pay Expectations
Regarding Anticipated Work Experience
Amount of time for maternal leave
Importance of salary to career choice
 Women in this sample do
 not expect to work less
 than their male
 Women's and men's
 predictions of their work
 experience did not differ
 with respect to:  
   Hours of work per week 
   Weeks per year 
   Number of years of work 
   Number of years working 
   full time 
Some Conclusions
Future Research
Women in this sample estimated lower salaries for career peak but not for career entry
Women still have lower peak estimates than men do. These lower extimates do not seem to be shaped by family life or maternal leave, but may be shaped by social comparisons
Why are women in this sample predicting lower estimates than men at career peak but not at career entry?
Why do women and men differ on where they get their salary information from?
Do men pay more attention to salary levels than women?
  For information on this presentation, please contact:  
  Dr. Hilary Lips,  
  Professor & Chair   
  Radford University,  
  Radford, VA 24142   
  Tel: 1-540-831-5387
Stephanin M. Hoban
 Graduate Student
 Department of Psychology
 Radford University, Radford, VA 24142

 Tel: 1-540-831-5361
  Sources: References
  Bowler, M. (1999). Women’s Earnings: An Overview.  Monthly Labor Review, 12(12), 13.
Crosby, F. (1982). Relative Deprivation and the Working Women. New York: Oxford University.
Heckert, T. M., Droste, H. E., Adams, P. J., Griffin, C. M., Roberts, L. L., Mueller, M. A., & Wallis,
      H. A. (2002). Gender Differences in Anticipated Salary: Role of Salary Estimates for Others, Job
      Characteristics, Career Paths, and Job Inputs. Sex Roles, 47 (3/4), 139-151.
Jackson, L. A., Gardner, P. D., & Sullivan, L. A. (1992). Explaining Gender Differences in Self-Pay
      Expectations: Social Comparison Standards and Perceptions of Fair Pay.
      Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(5), 651-663.
Keaveny, T. J. & Inderrieden, E. J. (2000). Gender differences in pay satisfaction and pay expectations.
      Journal of Managerial Issues, 12(3).
Phelan, J. (1994). The Paradox of the Contented Female Worker: An Assessment of Alternative
      Explanations. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57(2), 95-107.
Sweeney, P. D., McFarlin, D. B., & Inderrieden, E. J. (1990). Using Relative Deprivation Theory to Explain
      Satisfaction with Income and Pay Level: A Multi-study Examination.
      Academy of Management Journal, 33(2), 423-436.
Center for Gender Studies Related Links on Gender and Economic Issues
Equity Research: GlobalGaps:
U.S. Gender Pay
 Gap NowEquity in Work?
 Gender Wage Gaps- World Wide  
    Gender Pay Gap: ru-2012  Gender Pay Gap: mw-2011   Gender Pay Gap: lvc-2011 
  A Price Above Rubies: Albany NY-2003  
 We Can Do It: Images from Working Women in the 1940s

Gender Neutral Tasks-A Preliminary Study RU's SASAE Center Projects On-line
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Created by:  W. Andrew  &  H. Lips  Last updated: July 20th, 2018 ©2004 H. Lips & W. Andrew