The Director of the Center for Gender Studies and Chair of Psychology, Dr. Hilary Lips, maintains an on-going examination of currently available wage gap data, including her own analyses of possible trends, ethnic, occupational and social-psychological factors as well as selective reviews of additional research findings. She first presented lectures on women's wage gaps, and related issues, in a series of addresses at a number of universities in New Zealand; for an example of these lectures, click on, Women, Education & Economic Participation.  On November 3rd, 2001, Dr. Lips presented a keynote address on the wage gap at the National Organization of Women-New York State Conference in Albany. The title of Dr. Lips' address is nearly the same as the one given above. Though this address and others since then are not reproduced here, the links to sources of information supporting her work are provided below:  

An Overview of the Major and Continuing Wagegap Topics with Updated Links
Each Topical Heading is Connected to a Set of Web Sources

U.S. Census Bureau Documents a widening of the wage gap in 2003
(the largest backslide in the gender wage ration since 1991))
Documenting the pervasiveness of the wage gap
Is wage gap due to occupational choices?
Trends in the wage gap: Is it closing?
A look at two examples in which women should excel
What can be done?
We Can Do It: Women's Images from an Earlier Era
Center for Gender Studies Related Links

Gender & The Wage Gap:  Internet Data Sites & Information Sources
Documenting a decrease in women's median earnings relative to men's in 2003
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, CPS, 1961-2004 Annual Social & Economic Supplements According to the U.S. Census Bureau, "... The real median earnings of men who worked full-time, year-round remained unchanged between 2002 and 2003 at $40,668. The real median earnings of the comparable group of women declined by 0.6 percent to $30,724. ... The last time the female-to-male earnings ratio experienced an annual decline was between 1998 and 1999." 
Figures, graph and tables supporting these and other conclusions can be found in the August release of the Current Population Reports P60-226,
      Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2003 (pages 2,6-8)
Documenting the pervasiveness of the wage gap

A continuing earnings gap based upon an examination of 505 occupations:
Evidence from Census 2000 About the Earnings by Detailed Occupation for Men and Women
Census 2000 Special Reports      issued may 2004

US Census Bureau's Definitions and Explanations of Median income, Earnings, Race & Ethnic origin,

A Wage Gap "Favoring" Women Working Part-time, 50-52 Weeks per Year: 1967-2007 earnings,

Wage Gap Favoring Men for Full-time, Year-round Workers, '1960-'2007 earnings,

Wage Gaps Reflect Race, Ethnicity & Gender when Compared with White Male earnings; 1987-2007,

Gender Wage Gaps Persist within Women & Men of the Same Race-Ethnicity: see Tables P-36, P-38 at

Higher Educational Attainment Improves Women's Wages compared to Other Women, but Wage Gaps Persist within Similar Educational Attainments: see Tables P-16 to P-35 at
Wage Gaps Unaffected by Education for Women & Men of Similarly Educational Attainment: 1991-2007,
Is the wage gap due to occupational choices?

Wage Gaps Persist where Working Women Form Strong Majorities.
The Bureau of Labor web site provides tables of median weekly earnings, as well as worker numbers, of full-time wage and salary workers by 200 detailed occupations and sex. The tables are available in either TEXT or PDF formats. These tables may be incorporated into Excel worksheets, sorted according to the relative percentages of women workers in the occupations. Weekly median earnings for women and men may than be compared in occupations where women form strong majorities. For a choice of table formats, TEXT or PDF, click on either option at:

  URL (Bureau of Labor):
  For direct access to the pdf file: cpsaat39.pdf, click on:
  URL (Bureau of Labor):

Wage Gaps Persist Across Professional-Managerial Occupations.
The Bureau of Labor tables noted above also provide a classification of occupations: for example, management, professional and related occupations. Once these tables are incorporated into Excel files, this or any other particular classification may be selected out of the total for specific median earnings comparisons. When done for this category, the wagegap is readily apparent.
Trends in the wage gap: Is it closing?

The Gender Wage Gap: Debunking the Rationalizations
   by Hilary M. Lips
"The U.S. Census Bureau has made available statistics on women’s and men’s earnings for several decades. By examining this time series of data, it is possible to get a feel for the changes and trends in earnings. One thing revealed by a simple visual examination of the series since 1960 is how closely the shapes of the two lines parallel each other. The dips and bumps in women’s and men’s earnings seem to move in tandem. Clearly, similar economic and social forces are at work in influencing the rise and fall of earnings for both sexes. Men’s earnings do not stand still and wait for women’s to catch up.
"The series of data points from 1960 onward provides a basis for a forecast of the future, although such forecasts are always estimates rather than hard certainties. When we used forecasting analyses to project the earnings of women and men into the future, to the year 2010, we found no evidence on which we could base a prediction for a closing (or widening) wage gap."
The preceding quotes are from the section on: Is the Wage Gap Closing?
   An on-line publication for Women's - The Site for Working Women
   URL (for the article):
   URL (for Women's

See also U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, Series P-60, selected issues. To review reports available on line, click on:
  URL (Census Bureau): , then click on CPS Income Reports under the heading Current Population Reports(CPS)

The basic data for addressing questions of a long term trends in the wage gap is available from the U.S. Census Bureau through their Historical Income Tables - People. To view all such tables, click on:
For comparing earnings by gender for full-time, year-round workers 15 years of age and older 1960-2001,

For more detailed comparisons of income (or earnings) by gender for more recent years, the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics have produced a series of Detailed Income Tabulations based upon the Current Population Survey (CPS). These can be reached by clicking on Persons for a particular year (eg. 2004, 2003, 2002 etc) at the following Census Bureau link:

A look at two examples in which women should excel
 1. Earnings and leadership opportunities for elementary
 and secondary school teachers

Wage Gaps in Elementary & Secondary Education,
  URLs(Bureau of Labor Statistics):  Pdf Document: cpsaat39.pdf   The specific link for
  this pdf document is:  Since this table provides usual median weekly
  earnings by gender for a number of occupations, it is necessary to look up the information relevant to
  elementary and secondary education teachers.
  URLs for the Digest of Education Statistics gender-related salary statistics may explored from their home
  page for this information at:  More specifically, such information for
  2002 may be found in Table 76 at link:  This table
  (Average salaries for full-time teachers in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected
   characteristics: 1999-2000) may be downloaded as an Excel or Pdf file.
  U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics maintains a School and Staffing
  Survey home page at:  For a less recent analysis of gender differences in
  on earnings gender see, Chapter 4 Salary Differences Related to Teacher Sex and Racial-Ethnic Background
  in "The Patterns of Teacher Compensation" (January 1996), at link: 

Increasing Percentages of Women Teachers holding Bachelors, Masters & Doctoral Degrees,
  URL(National Science Foundation):
Percentages by Gender of Six Levels of Educational Attainment for Teachers,
  Table 68 (Teachers in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected characteristics:
  1999-2000) from the Digest of Educational Statistics provides statistics by gender at link:  Data for earlier years may be found by starting
  at the home.
 2. Rewards that accrue, and fail to accrue, to women in a
    domain of recognized  excellence: writing
Gender & Verbal Performance, Source: “Sex & Gender An Introduction, 4th Ed. H. Lips, p 175
Writing Skills Assessments by Gender, Grade-Level, National Association of Educational Progress,
Women's Degrees in English & Literature,
  URL(National Science Foundation):
Women's Degrees in the Arts & Music,
  URL(National Science Foundation):
Gender Differences in Literary Pulitizer Prize Awards Strongly Favor Men,
The Pulitzer web site lists the authors' who have received awards under a number of literary categories for the history of the prize; however, it does not tabulate the awards within each category, or overall, by recipients' gender. This must be done by visiting the site, and tabulating the awards by gender within each category for each year.
To reach the Pulitzer site, click on:
What can be done?
Become informed, review the "boring" stats, do the numbers, share your studies, ideas, experiences.
talk to each other, talk to us:
          Director:   Dr. Hilary Lips
at      The Center at

For possible
lectures or
on these topics, 
please contact:
  Dr. Hilary Lips,
  Professor & Chair
  Department of Psychology
  Radford University, Radford, VA 24142
  Email:   Tel: 1-540-831-5387
Center for Gender Studies Related Links
 Young Women's Knowledge & Beliefs About Gender Pay Gaps
Gender Wage Gap- World Wide    A Price Above Rubies? @ Albany NY
 Women, Education & Economic Participation - New Zealand

 Gender Pay Gap: mw-2011   Gender Pay Gap: lvc-2011   Gender Pay Gap: ru-2012

   We Can Do It: Images from the 1940s
Gender Neutral Tasks-A Preliminary Study New Zealand Award Lectures Center Projects On-line
Exploring Gender Sources Campus Issues: Alcohol  Substance Abuse  Assaults RU's SASAE

Center Home Psychology Radford University
Created by:  W. Andrew  &  H. Lips Last updated: August 18th, 2018     ©2005 H. Lips & W. Andrew