Wage Inequities Undervaluing Women
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     Web page representing recent New Zealand Lectures: March, 2002
In Christchurch, NZ: Monday, March 11
In Auckland, NZ: Monday, March 25
Women's Earnings Gaps Among Individual Countries
United States  --  Australia  --  Canada  --  New Zealand  --  United Kingdom
 United States    Median Annual Earnings of Full-time, Year-round Workers1   
Year        
'60
'61
'62
'63
'64
'65
'66
'67
'68
Men White      
33944
34778
Men All Races      
27774
28681
29226
29981
30665
31118
32449
32962
33868
Women All Races      
16851
16993
17330
17636
18138
18648
18676
19047
19696
Ratio with White Men      
0.56113
0.566335
Ratio with All Men      
0.606719
0.592483
0.592965
0.588239
0.591489
0.599267
0.575549
0.577847
0.581552
                           
Year
'69
'70
'71
'72
'73
'74
'75
'76
'77
'78
'79
'80
'81
M-white
36940
37205
37336
39748
40648
38899
38697
38742
39699
39478
39138
38780
38287
M-all
35751
36168
36331
38280
39483
38080
37820
37737
38555
38824
38304
37676
37462
W-all
21045
21472
21619
22150
22360
22374
22245
22715
22718
23077
22853
22666
22191
R-white
0.569708
0.577127
0.579039
0.557261
0.550089
0.575182
0.574851
0.586315
0.572256
0.584553
0.583908
0.584477
0.579596
R-all
0.588655
0.593674
0.595057
0.578631
0.56632
0.587553
0.588181
0.601929
0.589236
0.5944
0.596622
0.601603
0.59236
                           
Year
'82
'83
'84
'85
'86
'87
'88
'89
'90
'91
'92
'93
'94
M-white
37654
37497
38422
38804
39411
38906
38345
38346
36814
37021
36640
35844
35521
M-all
36730
36600
37229
37462
38391
38051
37539
36721
35280
35988
35858
35057
34685
W-all
22679
23725
23699
24191
24678
24801
24794
25217
25267
25140
25382
25073
24962
R-white
0.6023
0.632717
0.616808
0.623415
0.62617
0.63746
0.646603
0.657617
0.686342
0.679074
0.69274
0.699503
0.702739
R-all
0.617452
0.648224
0.636574
0.645748
0.642807
0.651783
0.660486
0.686719
0.716185
0.698566
0.707848
0.715207
0.719677
                           
Year
'95
'96
'97
'98
'99
'00
'01
M-white
35170
35004
35351
36971
37248
38870
39843
M-all
34431
34131
34945
36126
36476
37339
38275
W-all
24593
25176
25922
26433
26342
27352
29215
R-white
0.699261
0.719232
0.733275
0.714966
0.707206
0.703679
0.733253
R-all
0.714269
0.737629
0.741794
0.731689
0.722173
0.732532
0.763292
R-white, R-all ratios equal all women's earnings divided by white men's, all men's earnings respectively.
1Sources: Historical Income Tables-People, Table P-38 and Table P-38a, U.S. Census Bureau, U. S. Dept. of Commerce, April. 11, 2002. Web Sources: http://www.census.gov/hhes/income/histinc/p38.html   and  http://www.census.gov/hhes/income/histinc/p38a.html
 
  Australia -- Average Weekly Total Earnings1
Year
'82
'83
84
'85
'86
'87
'88
'89
'90
'91
'92
'93
'94
M-ft
347
375
415.7
435.5
465.9
497.4
532.4
568.7
613.3
632.7
665.5
679.6
705.9
W-ft
263.5
288.2
324.2
343.1
364.9
393.1
419.5
445.3
483
512.4
531.2
545.6
566.7
Ratio
0.759366
0.768533
0.779889
0.78783
0.783215
0.79031
0.787941
0.783014
0.787543
0.809862
0.798197
0.802825
0.802805
Year
'95
'96
'97
'98
'99
'00
'01
'02
M-ft
743
774.2
795.8
829.9
854.4
887.7
920.1
--
W-ft
589.8
607.9
634.8
660.6
683.5
716
750.3
--
Ratio
0.793809
0.785198
0.797688
0.796
0.799977
0.806579
0.815455
--------
Ratios estimated by dividing women's average weekly total earnings by comparable men's. M-ft, W-ft indicate men & women working full time.
1Sources: Year Book Australia -- 1985,1990,1996,2001-02.   Website:  http://www.abs.gov.au

  Canada -- Average Annual Earnings by Gender1
Year
'82
'83
'84
'85
'86
'87
'88
'89
'90
'91
'92
'93
'94
-M-ft
43664
43320
43736
42898
44121
F-ft
29599
30127
31444
30999
30804
Ratio
0.677
0.697
0.719
0.723
0.698
Year
'95
'96
'97
'98
'99
'00
'01
'02
M-ft
43078
42630
44571
45859
54800
W-ft
31500
31141
31018
33122
32026
Ratio
0.731
0.73
0.696
0.722
0.69
----------
----------
----------
Ratios represent Women's by Men's Earnings.  Earnings in constant 1999 dollars.  M-ft, W-ft indicate men & women working full time.
1Source: Statistics Canada, Income Statistics Division.  Website:  http://www.statcan.ca/

  New Zealand -- Average Weekly Total Earnings1
Year
'82
'83
'84
'85
'86
'87
'88
'89
'90
'91
'92
'93
'94
M-ft              
567.23
603.89
622.4
640.09
647.35
654.29
W-ft              
423.14
446.26
466.4
479.37
480.33
486.3
Ratio*              
0.745976
0.738976
0.749357
0.74891
0.741994
0.743248
Year
'95
'96
'97
'98
'99
'00
'01
'02
M-ft
672.77
692.55
714.18
724.94
743.79
--
--
--
W-ft
497.75
511.49
533.02
547.15
563.73
--
--
--
Ratio*
0.739852
0.73856
0.746338
0.754752
0.757916
----------
----------
----------
*Ratios estimated by dividing women's average weekly total earnings by comparable men's
1Source: New Zealand Official Yearbook 2000.  M-ft, W-ft indicate men & women working full time.
   New Zealand -- Average Annual Disposable, Gross, & Market Income2
 Year
1982
1986
1991
1996
 Women's Ave. Disposable Income as a ratio of Men's
0.51
0.55
0.58
0.58
 Women's Ave. Gross Income as a ratio of Men's
0.44
0.49
0.54
0.54
 Women's Ave. Market Income as a ratio of Men's
0.431
0.45
0.485
0.487
2Source:  Figure 3.13, Average Personal Gross Income by Sex, 1982-1996 and Figure 3.14, Average Personal Disposal Income by Sex, 1982-1996, New Zealand Now Incomes -- 1999 ---, p. 46-47, Statistics New Zealand. Website: http://www.stats.govt.nz

  United Kingdom -- Average Gross Hourly Earnings (Including overtime)1
Year
'82
'83
'84
'85
'86
'87
'88
'89
'90
'91
'92
'93
'94
M-ft                          
F-ft
Ratio
0.72000
0.72300
0.73400
0.73800
0.74100
0.73700
0.75200
0.76500
0.77100
0.78300
0.79300
0.79400
0.80000
Year
'95
'96
'97
'98
'99
'00
'01
'02
M-ft
10.26
11.97
11.00
--
W-ft
8.22
9.76
8.98
--
Ratio
0.80200
0.80400
0.80900
0.80700
0.81600
0.82000
0.82000
----------
Ratios indicate females working full-time as a fraction of male full-time hourly earnings.
1Sources:  The Gender Pay Gap: A Research Review.  Author: Grimshaw, D., Rubery, J.  Year Published: 2001 ISBN number: 1842060600.  Research Discussion Series, Equal Opportunity Comission.  E.O.C. Research Website.  Facts About Women and Men in Great Britain 2002, 2001; Women and Men in Britain: Pay and Income, 1999.  E.O.C. Website: Statistics About Men and Women in Great Britain.
 
Women's Earnings Gaps Among Constellations of Countries
 
 Europe -- European Earnings Gaps Favoring Men for Full-time, Year-round Workers1
  Average Gross Hourly Earnings (Overtime Included), 1995 Data
Countries*
NL
PO
UK
ES
FR
DW
FI
DK
SW
Full-time, Women's ratio**
0.706
0.715
0.737
0.741
0.766
0.769
0.815
0.831
0.87
*Netherlands, Portuagal, United Kingdom, Spain, France, Germany, Finland, Denmark, Sweden.
**Ratios indicate females working full-time as a ratio of male full-time earnings. 
1Source:  “The Gender Pay Gap: A Research Review”, Damian Grimshaw & Jill Rubery: gender_pay_gap_research_review_report.pd, Equal Opportunities Commission, 2001, ISBN 1 84206 060 0. E.O.C. Research Website
 
 Canada _ United States      Average Annual Earnings for Full-time, Year-Round Workers1
Year
'90
'91
'92
'93
'94
'95
'96
'97
'98
'99
CA Women-ft ratios*
0.716
0.699
0.708
0.715
0.72
0.714
0.738
0.742
0.732
0.722
US Women-ft ratios*
0.677
0.697
0.719
0.723
0.698
0.731
0.73
0.696
0.722
0.699
          *Indicates women's earnings as a ratio of men's full-time earnings. Canadian earnings include both paid and self-employment.
1Sources: Historical Income Tables-People, Table P-38a, U.S. Census Bureau, U. S. Dept. of Commerce, April 11, 2002; Statistics Canada, Income Statistics Division, SCF & SLID Data.
US Web: http://www.census.gov/hhes/income/histinc/p38.html 
Canadian Web:  http://www.statcan.ca/english/Pgdb/labor01a.htm
 
 Australia_New Zealand    Average Weekly Earnings as Ratios of Comparable Men's Earnings1
Year
'87
'88
'89
'90
'91
'92
'93
'94
'95
'96
'97
'98
'99
'00
'01
AU W-ft
0.790
0.788
0.787
0.788
0.810
0.798
0.803
0.803
0.794
0.786
0.798
0.796
0.800
0.807
0.815
NZ W-ft
0.728
0.734
0.746
0.739
0.749
0.749
0.742
0.743
0.740
0.739
0.746
0.755
0.758
0.776
0.762
1Sources: Year Book Australia 1985-2001; Website: http://www.abs.gov.au   New Zealand Official Year Book; Key Statistics, 1991-1999; Income Survey June 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001; Website: http://www.stats.govt.nz 
 
 Australia_New Zealand_United States_United Kingdom1
  Average Weekly Total Earnings as Ratios of Comparable Men's8
Year
'95
'96
'97
'98
'99
'00
'01
Australian Women's Full-time ratios
0.659
0.657
0.666
0.655
0.659
0.666
New Zealand Women's Full-time ratios
0.740
0.739
0.746
0.755
0.758
0.776
0.762
United States Women's Full-time ratios
0.755
0.751
0.744
0.763
0.765
0.737
0.752
United Kingdom women's Full-time ratios
0.802
0.804
0.809
0.807
0.816
1Sources: Economic Policy Institute Analysis of US Bureau of Labor Statistics; Average Weekly Earnings, States & Australia (6302.0); Statistics Canada, Income Statistics Division, 2001; New Zealand Official Year Book 2000 and Income Survey June 1998-2001 
Center for Gender Studies Related Links
  Young Women's Knowledge & Beliefs About Gender Pay Gaps    Wage Inequities Confronting, Undervaluing Women - 2002 data
Gender Wage Gaps- World Wide   Gender Gap Rankings - 58 Countries   A Price Above Rubies? @ Albany NY 
 Women, Education & Economic Participation - New Zealand
 Are Women Still Worth Less - 2003?    Gender Pay Gap--mw2011

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Gender Neutral Tasks-A Preliminary Study
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