Center for Gender Studies__                                                           Department of Psychology
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Gender Wage Gaps: U.S. & World Wide by Hilary Lips 
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Countries Links for Individual Countries, Constellations of Countries and Global Sites
Recent 
 Wage Gap 
U.S. Sources 
The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap (Fall 2013) : an AAUW report that "explains the pay gap in the United States; how it affects women of all ages, races, and education levels ...".
Breadwinner Moms (May 29, 2013): Mothers Are the Sole or Primary Provider in Four-in-Ten Households with Children. A Social & Demographic Trends research report from Pew Research.
Closing the Equal Pay Gap: 50 Years and Counting: True parity is still elusive. The official blog of the U.S. Department of Labor's Women's Bureau (April 9, 2013.
We've Moved Backward in Closing the Gender Wage Gap: ForbesWoman-2013
Equal Pay Day 2013: the National Women's Law Center
Women's Earnings and Income: the Catalyst Knowledge Center (2013) summarizing earnings gaps across a number of categories: by annual & weekly earnings, race-ethnicity, degrees, age, industry and by country.
Women in the Labor Force: A Databook -2013: The Women's Bureau Data & Statistics, Department of Labor.
Graduating to a Pay Gap: The Earnings of Women and Men One Year after College Graduation (October 24, 2012). A research report by the American Association of University Women (AAUW).
A Gender Reversal On Career Aspirations: Young Women Now Top Young Men in Valuing a High-Paying Career (April 19, 2012. A Social & Demographic Trends research report from Pew Research.
Wage Gap Widens for Women: An AFL-CIO NOW March 12, 2012 report.
"National Equal Pay Day" reflects the Department of Labor's Women's Bureau dedication to carrying forward work toward economic equality for all.
"Beware Those Who Blame Gender Pay Gap On Women's Choices" by Hilary Lips. A  2011 WomensMedia  report featured by Forbes.
Women in STEM: A Gender Gap to Innovation: An Economics & Statistics Administration (ESA) Report (Aug 2011). The U.S. Department of Commerce.
Women in America: An Economics & Statistics Administration (ESA) Report (March 2011). The U.S. Department of Commerce.
Invest in Women, Invest in America: A Comprehensive Review of Women in the U.S. Economy (Dec. 2010)
Women in Management: Analysis of Female Managers’ Representation, Characteristics, and Pay: by the  Government Accountability Office (GAO September 28, 2010).
Converging Characteristics of Men and Women in the Federal Workforce Help Explain the Narrowing Pay Gap: by the Government Accountability Office (GAO April 28, 2009).
Despite New Law, Gender Salary Gap Persists"  at NPR online (April 19, 2010)
Layoffs sharpen focus on gender wage gap by Katherine Calos, Richmond Times, with Hilary Lips and other commentators (April 5, 2009)
Definitions  ~ ~ ~ ~
BLS Labor force characteristics: Access from this link to the 28 definitions of standard concepts and terms related to Employed persons, Unemployed persons  Labor force, Labor force participation rate, and Not in the Labor force.
Definitions & Explanations of Wage Gap Related Concepts & Terms (in CPS):  Earnings, Educational attainment, Ethnic origin, Marital status, Mean, Median, Work Experience, and many others.
U.S.
Data 
Sources 
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ACS-American Community Survey: Provides detailed information by sex on education, ethnicity/race, family, income and work.
American FactFinder provides access to data from a number of surveys: ACS, AHS, Census, and others.
ATUS (American Time Use Survey) BLS tables for time spent in primary activities (e.g., married parents).
Catalyst Knowledge Center: Women's Earnings and Income on the Catalyst.org website.
CPS (Current Population Survey) Annual Earnings & Income Historical Tables - U.S. Census Bureau
CPS Weekly-Hourly Earnings Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
Data & Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor's (DOL) Women's Bureau 
ESA (Economics & Statistics Administration) Reports in the U.S. Department of Commerce
GAO (Government Accountability Office) Reports & Testimonies by Topics: Try searching by employment.
NWLC-Equal Pay and the Wage Gap: the National Women's Law Center
Equal Pay -- Glass Ceiling Documents/Reports Read Rep. Maloney on the 50th anniversary of this act.
Older 
U.S.
Sources 
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U.S. Census Documents Occupational Earnings Gaps (PDF): Issued May 2004

U.S. Census Bureau Documents a Widening of the Gender Wage Gap: 2002-2003. See figure 2, 1960-2003
data, page 6 of "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2003". Report issued  August 2004.
Work Patterns Partially Explain Differences Between Men's and Women's Earnings; A GAO-04-35 report on women's earnings issued October 31, 2003.
Evidence From Census 2000 About Earnings by Detailed Occupation for Men and Women: Issued by U.S. Census Bureau, May 2004
Constellations of Countries by  Global Regions
Global Rankings Global Gender Gap: World Economic Forum   Reducing the gender wage gap in Europe – how to tackle the task?   Women Leaders & Gender Parity  The Global Gender Gap Report - 2013  The World's Women reports: UN-statistics
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ITUC New Report Shows Global Gender Pay Gap Bigger Than Previously Thought    UNECE Gender Statistics Database: Work and the Economy    UNECE-Gender Pay Gap    Gender pay gap by level of education   Unadjusted gender pay gap for European Countries-2008    UN stats List of Tables: See Tbl 5g:Women's Wages Relative to Men's    World's Women's Wages (Manufacturing) Relative to Men's Equality Through Pay Equity(PDF) 
Global 
Pay Gap  Sources 
 Constellations of Countries ~ European & Selected Others
EU 
Pay Gap 
Sources  
Eurostat: Gender pay gap statistics    Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now (OECD)    The High Price of Motherhood (OECD)-2012    The Gender Pay Gap (ETUC): A Comparative review of 30 European Countries   EU-27 Countries: Gender pay gap table-2002-2011   OCED Gender pay gaps-2009    How to Close the Gender Pay Gap in Europe   Gendered Pay & Collective Bargaining in Europe   
Constellations of Individual Countries ~ English speaking
   Australia   Women's Men's Incomes - 2012 Gender pay gap getting worse, not better: Australian study (2010)    Despite the talk, the glass ceiling for women proves tough to crack-Diversity Council Australia (2010)    Employee Ave. Weekly Earnings & Hours    Gender Wage Gap Publications (NATSEM)
Canada   Statistics Canada: Ave. Earnings by Sex & Work Pattern    The Gender Wage Gap in Canada   The Evolution of the Male-Female Wage Gap in Canada (p. 12)  Wage gap widest for university-educated women   Education level doesn’t close gender wage gap    Economic Gender Equality Indicators 2000(pdf)
Ireland  Equal Pay Day Highlights Gender Pay Gap in Ireland and the EU   Persistence of gender pay gap - 2009   Gender gap: Irish Women Pay 'High price' for Motherhood   Irish gender pay gap related to child rearing responsibilities
New 
Zealand  
Gender Pay Gap in New Zealand-2012    Gender Pay Gap Widens in New Zealand     The CTU's Pay Equity Challenge in New Zealand  Income Tables    Income Tables by age, sex & labour force status   Women's incomes lower than men's    Pay Inequality Between Men and Women-2000 (pdf)
United 
Kingdom  
UK Annual Earnings by Sex-2011 & 2012   UK Weekly Earnings by sex-2011 & 2012   Britain's gender pay gap: Mothers who work full-time earn 21% less than men-2012    Gender pay gap 'at risk of worsening', say campaigners   UK Annual Survey of Hours & Earning: Patterns of Psy-1997 to 2012    UK Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, 2012 Provisional Results  UK Presentation of the Gender Pay Gap (ONS)   
Constellations of Individual Countries ~ Europe
Denmark  Denmark Personal Income by Sex & Age -2011   Denmark Yearbook Statistics   Denmark Income by Country, Sex, Years   Denmark Employment   Employees-all income by sex  See figure 3: EU Gender Pay Gap, 2009-2010 -EIROonline See European pay gap statistics above 
Finland  Finland Income by Country, Sex, Years   Finland Wage & Salary Earnings by Gender-2011-2012   See figure 3: EU Gender Pay Gap, 2009-2010 -EIROonline    Gender pay gap narrowed in 2009
Iceland  Iceland Income by Country, Sex, Years   Iceland Earnings: the gender pay gap, 2008-2012    Statistics Iceland: Women & men  Iceland Wages, Income & Labor Market   See figure 3: EU Gender Pay Gap, 2009-2010 -EIROonline
Norway   Norway Income by Country, Sex, Years   Statistics Norway - Women and Men   Women and Men in Norway-see Wages, Income and Wealth   Norway Wage Statistics - 2012   See figure 3: EU Gender Pay Gap, 2009-2010 -EIROonline
Sweden   Sweden Income by Country, Sex, Years   Report examines gender pay gap  See figure 3: EU Gender Pay Gap, 2009-2010 -EIROonline     Wages..Gender..Changes in Sweden: '81-'98   See European pay gap statistics above 
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Austria  See European pay gap statistics above   Wage differences between Austrian men and women  Germany and Austria lag behind in EU gender pay gap indicator   Closing the Gender Pay Gap in EU Member States: Austria
Belgium  See European pay gap statistics above   Closing the Gender Pay Gap in EU Member States: Belgium
Estonia  See European pay gap statistics above   Estonia wages, salaries, labour costs   Estonia Earnings   Estonia Monthly Earnings by Sex   Closing the Gender Pay Gap in EU Member States: Estonia
France  See European pay gap statistics above   The Gender Wage Gap in Four Countries-France, Japan, Australia, Great Britain  Gender wage gap and the glass ceiling effect  France National Institute of Statistics  Income-Wages (in French)
Germany  See European pay gap statistics above   Germany: Differences in Men and Women's Earnings-2012   Gender Pay Gaap in Germany   Germany: Facts & Figures    Germany and Austria lag behind in EU gender pay gap indicator    2010: differences in earnings between women and men remain 
Netherlands  See European pay gap statistics above    Closing the Gender Gap: the Netherlands   Netherlands Gender pay gap among highest in Europe   Factors Affecting Netherland Hourly Wages   Statistics Netherland
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Greece  See European pay gap statistics above for Greece data   Gender pay gap most acute among highly educated women in Greece   Educational segregation and the gender wage gap in Greece
Italy  See European pay gap statistics above for Italy data    The Trend over Time of the Gender Wage Gap in Italy
Portugal  See European pay gap statistics above for Portugal data   The Gender Wage Gap in Portugal: Recent Evolution and Decomposition  Gender Pay Differentials in Portugal: Contributions to the Employment Policy Debate
Spain  See European pay gap statistics above for Spain data   The Role of Segregation and Pay Structure on the Gender Wage Gap in Spain    Performance Pay and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from Spain
Constellations of Individual Countries ~ Asia  Far East  Middle East
China  The Pay Gap in China .. has worsened for women (2009)
India  The Gender Pay Gap: Paycheck India Data-2012    International Trade and the Gender Wage Gap: New Evidence from India’s Manufacturing Sector (2008)  Gender wage gap widens (2007-2008)
Japan  Gender gap still exists in Japan in pay, working conditions: OECD 2012 report   Highlights Japan: Wage gap twice OECD average  Pay Gap Worst for Japan's Mothers
Korea  South Korea's Gender Gap Widens-2012    The Gender Wage Gap, Around the World Korea has biggest gender wage gap among OECD nations
United Arab  Emirates  DWE- Dubai Women Establishment: Provides UAE Demographics  and UAE Women in education, the economy and society
Center for Gender Studies Related Links on Gender and Economic Issues
Equity Research:
Global Gaps:
U.S. Gender 
Pay Gap Now:
Equity in Work?
Young Women's Knowledge & Beliefs About Gender Pay Gaps
Gender Wage Gaps- World Wide      Women, Education & Economic Participation - New Zealand
Gender Pay Gap: ru-2012      Gender Pay Gap: mw-2011      Gender Pay Gap: lvc-2011
     A Price Above Rubies: Albany NY-2003
We Can Do It: Images from Working Women in the 1940s 

Gender Issues:  Alcohol  Substance Abuse  Assaults  
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Created by:  H. Lips &  W. Andrew     Last updated: October  2nd, 2013   © 2009 H. Lips & W. Andrew.